# categorical

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**Topos**— For topoi in literary theory, see Literary topos. For topoi in rhetorical invention, see Inventio. In mathematics, a topos (plural topoi or toposes ) is a type of category that behaves like the category of sheaves of sets on a topological space.… …122

**National Environmental Policy Act**— For other uses of NEPA , see NEPA (disambiguation). National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 Full title National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 Acronym NEPA Enacted by the 91st United States Congress …123

**Dirichlet distribution**— Several images of the probability density of the Dirichlet distribution when K=3 for various parameter vectors α. Clockwise from top left: α=(6, 2, 2), (3, 7, 5), (6, 2, 6), (2, 3, 4). In probability and… …124

**Contraposition (traditional logic)**— In traditional logic, contraposition is a form of immediate inference in which from a given proposition another is inferred having for its subject the contradictory of the original predicate, and in some cases involving a change of quality… …125

**Linear discriminant analysis**— (LDA) and the related Fisher s linear discriminant are methods used in statistics, pattern recognition and machine learning to find a linear combination of features which characterize or separate two or more classes of objects or events. The… …126

**List of mathematics articles (C)**— NOTOC C C closed subgroup C minimal theory C normal subgroup C number C semiring C space C symmetry C* algebra C0 semigroup CA group Cabal (set theory) Cabibbo Kobayashi Maskawa matrix Cabinet projection Cable knot Cabri Geometry Cabtaxi number… …127

**Logic in Islamic philosophy**— Logic (Arabic: Mantiq ) played an important role in early Islamic philosophy. Islamic law placed importance on formulating standards of argument, which gave rise to a novel approach to logic in Kalam, as seen in the method of qiyas . This… …128

**Schopenhauer's criticism of the Kantian philosophy**— Schopenhauer appended a criticism to the first volume of his The World as Will and Representation . He wanted to show Kant s errors so that Kant s merits would be appreciated and his achievements furthered. Kant s merits According to Schopenhauer …