# Likelihood

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**List of phylogenetics software**— This list of phylogenetics software is a compilation of computational phylogenetics software used to produce phylogenetic trees. Such tools are commonly used in comparative genomics, cladistics, and bioinformatics. Methods for estimating… …112

**Doctrine of bias in Singapore law**— A depiction of Lady Justice on the tympanum of the Old Supreme Court Building Bias is one of the grounds of judicial review in Singapore. If actual bias on the part of a judge or tribunal can be proved by a party to a legal proceeding, or on the… …113

**Maximum spacing estimation**— The maximum spacing method tries to find a distribution function such that the spacings, D(i), are all approximately of the same length. This is done by maximizing their geometric mean. In statistics, maximum spacing estimation (MSE or MSP), or… …114

**Computational phylogenetics**— is the application of computational algorithms, methods and programs to phylogenetic analyses. The goal is to assemble a phylogenetic tree representing a hypothesis about the evolutionary ancestry of a set of genes, species, or other taxa. For… …115

**Estimation of covariance matrices**— In statistics, sometimes the covariance matrix of a multivariate random variable is not known but has to be estimated. Estimation of covariance matrices then deals with the question of how to approximate the actual covariance matrix on the basis… …116

**Cauchy distribution**— Not to be confused with Lorenz curve. Cauchy–Lorentz Probability density function The purple curve is the standard Cauchy distribution Cumulative distribution function …117

**Conjugate prior**— Bayesian statistics Theory Bayesian probability Probability interpretations Bayes theorem Bayes rule · Bayes factor Bayesian inference Bayesian network Prior · Posterior · Likelihood …118

**Operator Grammar**— For the class of formal computer languages, see Operator precedence grammar. Operator Grammar is a mathematical theory of human language that explains how language carries information. This theory is the culmination of the life work of Zellig… …119

**Proportional hazards models**— are a class of survival models in statistics. Survival models relate the time that passes before some event occurs to one or more covariates that may be associated with that quantity. In a proportional hazards model, the unique effect of a unit… …120

**Bayes' theorem**— In probability theory, Bayes theorem (often called Bayes law after Thomas Bayes) relates the conditional and marginal probabilities of two random events. It is often used to compute posterior probabilities given observations. For example, a… …